Episodic and chronic pollution of the environment by oil causes major disruption to the local ecological environment. Involvement of biosurfactant rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas sp in the uptake of hydrocarbons.
Because most constituents of crude oil sludge are biodegradable, the use of bioremediation techniques has proven to be economical, environmentally friendly and flexible Niti et al. This is possible because microorganisms have enzyme systems to degrade and utilize different hydrocarbons as a source of carbon and energy.
Even better, some members of the rod-shaped group can eat other aromatic hydrocarbons that are even more toxic, such as toluene. Research and application of phytoremediation for the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination over the past fifteen years have provided much useful information that can be used to design effective remediation systems and drive further improvement and innovation.
This order of microbes—part of the Proteobacteria phylum, named after the shape-shifting Greek god Proteus—assume a number of forms and roles in eliminating an oil spill. Official webpage of the Coastal Waters Consortium. Another extremophile species in this genus has been found in Antarctic waters Oleispira antarctica as well as the subtropical waters into which the Macondo well has been spilling.
Isolation of bacteria Bacteria were isolated by means of the enrichment culture technique Liu et al. Other microbial genuses that contribute to such toxic tidying are Pseudomonas and Vibrio, although they may not be as abundant as Neptunomonas or Cycloclasticus.
Various forms of bacteria have the ability to degrade oil, but the efficiency in bioremediation depends on physical and chemical parameters e. The genome sequence forms the basis for current detailed studies on regulation of pathways and enzyme structures. That this is true in such phylogenetically diverse species is remarkable and further suggests the ancient origin of this catabolic capacity.
Several studies have reported on the catabolic abilities of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and algae to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons Riser-Roberts ; Dean-Ross et al. Some compounds, such as the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHsmay not be degraded at all [ 23 ].
The interest of these studies lies on the biotechnological applications of sterol transforming enzymes for the industrial synthesis of sexual hormones and corticoids. Thus, as originally noted in pseudomonadsa large number of "peripheral aromatic" pathways funnel a range of natural and xenobiotic compounds into a restricted number of "central aromatic" pathways.
In the figure, carbon is represented as yellow circles, oxygen as pink circles, and hydrogen as blue circles. Depending on the chain length, enzyme systems are required to introduce oxygen in the substrate to initiate biodegradation Table 1.
Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is a complex process that depends on the nature and on the amount of the hydrocarbons present. Both paper and textiles cotton, jute, and linen are particularly vulnerable to Aspergillus degradation.
Table 5 shows some examples of the relevant use of genetic engineering technology to improve bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminants using bacteria.
De Sisto Materano, O.
It also has the ability to thrive in a variety of habitats, from marine sediments to Arctic sea ice—making it one of the more adaptable spill fighters. Several complete genome sequences were determined during the last few years from bacteria capable of anaerobic organic pollutant degradation.
Pseudomonads are the best known bacteria capable of utilizing hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources and producing biosurfactants [ 3787 — 89 ].
Genetic engineering for biodegradation of contaminants. The results showed that the presence of biosurfactant in BIOREN 1 was the most active ingredient which contributed to the increase in oil degradation rates whereas BIOREN 2 without biosurfactant was not effective in that respect. A similar compilation by Bartha and Bossert [ 33 ] included 22 genera of bacteria and 31 genera of fungi.
Members of the genus play a role not only in cleaning up oil spills—but also the fatty acid residue of whale carcasses, like Neptunomonas japonica pictured here.
Pictured here is the salt-loving Halomonas elongata, which grows best in extreme environments but does not eat oil. Several bacteria are even known to feed exclusively on hydrocarbons [ 39 ]. Bacteria are the most active agents in petroleum degradation, and they work as primary degraders of spilled oil in environment [ 3738 ].
Sugars required for various biosyntheses and growth are synthesized by gluconeogenesis. Aquatic Biosystems 8, However, several high-throughput techniques originally developed for medical studies can be applied to assess biotreatment in confined environments.
Immobilization can be done in batch mode as well as continuous mode. This order of microbes—part of the Proteobacteria phylum, named after the shape-shifting Greek god Proteus—assume a number of forms and roles in eliminating an oil spill. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHsas the major components of oil sludge, are hydrophobic and recalcitrant.
Bacterial counts revealed that V. Neither phosphate, nitrate, nor oxygen were limiting as an energy source.
There was a microbial shift in the deepwater community as the chemistry and nature of the oil changed. COLWELLIA (GENUS): This clan of oil-eating microbes can be found from cold Arctic and Antarctic waters to the balmy seas of the Gulf of Mexico.
Meet the Microbes Eating the Gulf Oil Spill [Slide Show] These microscopic life forms are blooming as a result of the oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico from the Macondo deep-sea well. Oct 06, · Effect of Sophorolipid Biosurfactant on oil Biodegradation by the Natural oil-degrading Bacteria on the Weathered Biodiesel, diesel and light crude oil.
Bioremediation and Biodegradation 6, 6. Okerentugba PO, Ezeronye OU. Oct 20, · The growth of hydrocarbon‐degrading bacteria in oil fields and oil tanks in general affects not so much the quantity, but certainly the quality of oil.
Oil fields occur typically at several thousand metres below ground and, at temperatures of 60–90°C, are considered sterile. Cycloclasticus Marine bacteria; play a major role in degrading polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) from crude oil in marine environment.
Pseudomonadaceae Pseudomonas Numerous strains are most studied oil biodegraders; many strains are patented and are included in commercial bioremediation mixtures (Ref.).
Some of the main oil-degrading bacteria in the Gulf of Mexico, were the Marinobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Vibrio sp. COREXIT, the chemical dispersant applied in the BP oil spill, was tested against these bacteria for toxicity purposes.Oil degrading bacteria